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Journal Article

Martin Hellman,
Federation of American Scientists, 2014
The destructive potential of nuclear weapons is so great that decisions impacting them should be made in a fully conscious, objective manner. Unfortunately, there is significant evidence that this is not the case.
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Book

Benoît Pelopidas, Benoît Pelopidas
British Foreign Policy and the National Interest, 2014

This paper examines UK national (security and nuclear) interests in relation to Trident and the recent putative shift in conceptions of UK national interests from a discourse of ‘security’ to one of ‘resilience’. We discuss the rise of resilience in the discourse of UK national interests and reflect upon its possible articulations with the concept and goal of security, in order to make sense of what a shift from security to resilience would entail.

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Journal Article

Yunli Bai, Hongmei Yi, Linxiu Zhang, Yaojiang Shi, Xiaochen Ma, Nathan Congdon, Zhongqiang Zhou, Matthew Boswell, Scott Rozelle
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 2014

This paper examines the prevalence of vision problems and accessibility to and quality of vision care in rural China. We obtained data from 4 sources: 1) the National Rural Vision Care Survey; 2) the Private Optometrists Survey; 3) the County Hospital Eye Care Survey; and 4) the Rural School Vision Care Survey. The data from each of the surveys were collected by the authors during 2012. Thirty-three percent of the rural population surveyed self-reported vision problems. Twenty-two percent of subjects surveryed had ever had a vision exam.

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Journal Article

Xinping Chen, Zhenling Cui, Mingshen Fan, Peter Vitousek, Ming Zhao, Wenqi Ma, Zhenlin Wang, Weijian Zhang, Xiaoyuan Yan, Jianchang Yang, Xiping Deng, Qiang Gao, Qiang Zhang, Shiwei Guo, Jun Ren, Shiqing Li, Youliang Ye, Zhaohui Wang, Jianliang Huang, Qiyuan Tang, Yixiang Sun, Xianlong Peng, Jiwang Zhang, Mingrong He, Yunji Zhu, Jiquan Xue, Guiliang Wang, Liang Wu, Ning An, Liangquan Wu, Lin Ma, Weifeng Zhang, Fusuo Zhang
Nature, 2014

Agriculture faces great challenges to ensure global food security by increasing yields while reducing environmental costs. Here we address this challenge by conducting a total of 153 site-year field experiments covering the main agro-ecological areas for rice, wheat and maize production in China.

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Journal Article

Justin S. Mankin
Climate Dynamics, 2014

Snow is a vital resource for a host of natural and human systems. Global warming is projected to drive widespread decreases in snow accumulation by the end of the century, potentially affecting water, food, and energy supplies, seasonal heat extremes, and wildfire risk. However, over the next few decades, when the planning and implementation of current adaptation responses are most relevant, the snow response is more uncertain, largely because of uncertainty in regional and local precipitation trends.

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Journal Article

Thomas Fingar
Global Asia, 2014

Perceptions of security risks in Northeast Asia are increasingly being shaped by the rise of China and Japan's more recent efforts to become a more "normal" nation. The momentum behind both developments is being felt acutely in the relationship between the United States and South Korea. While many argue that the stage is being set for an inevitable conflict, Thomas Fingar, the Oksenberg-Rohlen Distinguished Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, argues that what is happening in China and Japan provides an opportunity for greater multilateral cooperation.

 


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Journal Article

Di Mo, Renfu Luo, Chengfang Liu, Huiping Zhang, Linxiu Zhang, Alexis Medina, Scott Rozelle
World Development, 2014

There is little evidence showing whether health information transmitted via text messages can change health and educational outcomes. We conducted a randomized field experiment involving 900 primary students in rural China to study whether a health education campaign conducted via text message could affect caregiver knowledge or student outcomes.

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Journal Article

Xiaochen Ma, Zhongqiang Zhou, Hongmei Yi, Xiaopeng Pang, Yaojiang Shi, Qianyun Chen, Miriam E. Meltzer, Saskia le Cessie, Mingguang He, Scott Rozelle, Yizhi Liu, Nathan Congdon
2014

Abstract

Objective: To study for the first time using a clinical trial the effect of free glasses on academic performance in rural Chinese children, among whom uncorrected myopia is the leading cause of visual impairment.

Design: Cluster-randomized, investigator-masked, controlled trial carried out in the 2012-2013 school year.

Setting: Primary schools (n=252) randomly selected on a population basis in two prefectures in western China.

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Journal Article

Xiaochen Ma, Zhongqiang Zhou, Hongmei Yi, Xiaopeng Pang, Yaojiang Shi, Qianyun Chen, Mirjam E. Meltzer, Saskia le Cessie, Mingguang He, Scott Rozelle, Yizhi Liu, Nathan Congdon
British Medical Journal, 2014

Objective: To study for the first time using a clinical trial the effect of free glasses on academic performance in rural Chinese children, among whom uncorrected myopia is the leading cause of visual impairment.

Participants: Among 19,934 children in grades 4 and 5 randomly selected for visual acuity screening, 3177 (15.9%, mean age 10.5 years) had visual acuity < 6/12 in either eye without glasses correctable to > 6/12 with glasses, and were eligible for allocation. Among these, 3052 (96.0%) completed the study.

Interventions: Children were randomized by school (84 schools per arm) to one of three interventions at the beginning of the school year: free glasses provided in class, vouchers for free glasses at a local facility or glasses prescriptions only (Control group).

Results: Among 3177 eligible children, 1036 (32.6%), 988 (31.1%) and 1153 (36.3%) were randomized to Control, Voucher and Free Glasses respectively. All eligible children would benefit from glasses, but only 15% had them at baseline. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed on all 1002 (96.8%), 946 (95.9%) and 1104 (95.8%) children completing final testing in Control, Voucher and Free Glasses groups. Effect on test score was 0.11 SD (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.01 to 0.21, p = 0.03) comparing the Free Glasses and Control groups. Adjusted effect of providing free glasses (0.10 SD, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.20; p = 0.04) was greater than parental education (0.03, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.10) or family wealth (0.002, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.07). Closeout glasses wear was 41% (observed), 68% (self-reported) in the Free Glasses group.

Conclusions: Providing free glasses improves children's performance on mathematics testing to a statistically significant degree, despite imperfect compliance. Myopia is common and rarely corrected in this setting.

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Working Paper

Prashant Loyalka, Zhaolei Shi, James Chu, Natalie Johnson, Jianguo Wei, Scott Rozelle
2014

Researchers typically explain inequalities in access to elite high schools by looking at gaps that appear before the high school admissions process. However, even when disadvantaged students reach the stage of high school admissions with identical qualifications as advantaged students, mechanisms particular to the high school admissions process may prevent disadvantaged students from accessing elite high schools. The overall goal of this paper is to examine the degree to which the high school admissions process deters disadvantaged students from accessing elite high schools.

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Journal Article

B. Sultan, Kaiyu Guan, M. Kouressy, M. Biasutti, C. Piani, G.L. Hammer, G. McLean, David Lobell
Environmental Research Letters, 2014

West Africa is highly vulnerable to climate hazards and better quantification and understanding of the impact of climate change on crop yields are urgently needed. Here we provide an assessment of near-term climate change impacts on sorghum yields in West Africa and account for uncertainties both in future climate scenarios and in crop models. Towards this goal, we use simulations of nine bias-corrected CMIP5 climate models and two crop models (SARRA-H and APSIM) to evaluate the robustness of projected crop yield impacts in this area.

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Journal Article

Neil Narang, Neil Narang
International Studies Quarterly, 2014
Humanitarian aid has rapidly emerged as a core component of modern peacebuilding and post-conflict reconstruction. However, some practitioners and policymakers claim that humanitarian assistance may actually prolong conflict. The current debate about the effect of humanitarian aid on conflict underspecifies causal mechanisms and takes place largely through case studies. Narang use a bargaining framework to argue that aid can inadvertently increase each combatant’s uncertainty about the other side’s relative strength, thereby prolonging civil war.
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Policy Brief

Frank Wolak, Frank Wolak
Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research (SIEPR), 2014
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Book

Francis Fukuyama, Francis Fukuyama
2014

 

 


Book Description

Writing in The New York Time Book review, Michael Lind described The Origins of Political Order as "a major achievement by one of the leading public intellectuals of our time." Fukuyama completes the most important work of political thought in at least a generation. Taking up the essential question of how societies develop strong, impersonal, and accountable political institutions, Fukuyama follows the story from the Industrial Revolution to the globalization of democracy, from the rise of the Prussian bureaucratic state to the so-called Arab Spring and the deep dysfunctions of contemporary American politics. He examines the effects of corruption on governance and explains why only some societies have been successful at rooting it out. He explores the different legacies of colonialism in Latin America, Africa, and Asia, and offers a clear-eyed account of why certain regions have thrived and developed more quickly than others. And he boldly reckons with the future of democracy in the face of a rising global middle class and entrenched political paralysis in the West.

A sweeping, masterful account of the struggle to create a well-functioning modern state, Political Order and Political Decay is destined to be a classic. 


Francis Fukuyama discusses the central argument and main themes behind his new volume, "Political Order and Political Decay."


About the Author

Francis Fukuyama is the Olivier Nomellini Senior Fellow at Stanford University’s Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies. He has previously taught at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University and at the George Mason University School of Public Policy. Fukuyama was a researcher at the RAND Corporation and served as the deputy director for the State Department’s policy planning staff. He is the author of The Origins of Political Order, The End of History and the Last Man, Trust, and America at the Crossroads, among other books. He lives with his wife in California.

 

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Journal Article

Rajesh Gupta
The Lancet Global Health, 2014

In response to the current outbreak, the international community has endorsed the clinical use of unregistered treatments for Ebola. Even with this accelerated pathway to in-human testing and use, radically novel approaches to drug development will be needed to improve the likelihood that a treatment is realised.

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Working Paper

Masahiko Aoki
2014
This paper argues that game-theoretic approach is incomplete for institutional studies, because comparative institutions as well as institutional changes involve a possibility of multiple equilibria. In order to solve the common knowledge problem, this paper proposes to unify game theoretic thought with an analysis of public representations/propositions to summarize salient features of the recursive/emergent states of play. From this perspective the paper tries to reconcile differences in three accounts of institutions, endogenous outcome, exogenous rules and constitutive rules accounts. Then, the unified approach is applied to comparative and historical cases of the Tokugawa Japan and the Qing China. Specifically it sheds new light into the coalitional nature of Tokugawa Baku-Han regime nesting the fundamental Samurai-village pact as well as the tendency toward decentralization of political violence and fiscal competence to the provincial level toward the end of the Qing China. From these new historical interpretations, endogenous strategic forces and associated public propositions leading to institutional changes through the Meiji Restoration and the Xinhai Revolution are identified and compared.
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Book

Rosamond L. Naylor
Oxford University Press, 2014

The Evolving Sphere of Food Security seeks to answer two important questions: How do the priorities and challenges of achieving food security change over time as countries develop economically? And how do the policies used to promote food security in one country affect nutrition, food access, natural resources, and national security in other countries? The volume presents the many faces and facets of food security—their symptoms, their roots, and their possible remedies—through the lens of a multidisciplinary group of scholars.

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Journal Article

Troell, M., Rosamond L. Naylor, M. Metian, M. Beveridge, P. Tyedmers, C. Folke, K. Arrow, S. Barrett, A-S. Crépin, P. Ehrlich, Å. Gren, N. Kautsky, S. Levin, K. Nyborg, H. Österblom, S. Polasky, M. Scheffer, B. Walker, T. Xepapadeas, A. de Zeeuw
PNAS, 2014

Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change.

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Working Paper

Kenji E. Kushida, Jonathan Murray, Patrick Scaglia, John Zysman
The Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE), 2014
The advent of Cloud computing as the new underlying global infrastructure of computing presents distinctive new opportunities and challenges for Europe. Cloud computing is transforming computing resources from a scarce to an abundant resource, driving a wave of commoditization in previously high-end software and hardware. For Europe to gain independence from US-based global scale Cloud providers, our view is that it needs to move towards a distributed model of computing with federated governance.
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Policy Brief

Gi-Wook Shin, David Straub, Joyce Lee
2014

"Tailored Engagement" is a result of research and an earlier report by faculty members and researchers at the Walter H. Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center (APARC) at Stanford University. The authors, Gi-Wook Shin, the director the Shorenstein APARC; David Straub, the associate director of the Korea Program; and Joyce Lee, the research associate for the Korea Program, write that they "hope this study will serve as a useful reference for leaders and citizens of the Republic of Korea as well as contribute to the global discussion about how to ensure peace, security and prosperity in Northeast Asia."

 

Contents:

  • Introduction

  • Policy Parameters of Major Players

  • President Park's North Korea Policy

  • The Policy Context

  • Toward Tailored Engagement

  • Engaging North Korea

 

A summary of the report is also available in Korean.

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Commentary

Karl Eikenberry
Financial Times, 2014

If there is one thing Americans should have learnt from their recent wars, it is that they do not have the wisdom, resources or staying power to dictate political outcomes. Not long ago Washington aspired to build prosperous democracies in Afghanistan and Iraq. Today it would be satisfied if they simply hung together as countries.President Barack Obama says the US should recognise that the world is “messy”.

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Journal Article

Mark W. Smith, Tami L. Mark
Psychiatric Services, 2014

Outpatient treatment for substance use disorders promotes recovery and reduces readmission (1,2). We measured the annual percentage of individuals aged 13–64 who were covered under employer health plans and who received outpatient treatment for a substance use disorder within 30 days of a related inpatient stay.

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Working Paper

Grant Miller, Grant Miller, Kim Singer Babiarz, Nomita Divi, S.V. Mahadevan
Stanford University, 2014
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