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Browse FSI scholarship on geopolitics, global health, energy, cybersecurity and more.

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Journal Article

The Behavioural Economics of Exercise Habits

Jeremy Goldhaber-Fiebert, Alan M. Garber
VoxEU , 2011

Obesity – and its related illnesses – endangers the lives of millions across the world. While healthier, more physically active lifestyles can mitigate this, the question remains of how policymakers can get people to switch from being couch potatoes to keen runner beans. This column presents new evidence suggesting that for many even a nudge may suffice.

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Journal Article

Numerical Modeling of Aquaculture Dissolved Waste Transport in a Coastal Embayment

Subhas K. Venayagamoorthy, Hyeyun Ku, Oliver B. Fringer, Alice Chiu, Rosamond L. Naylor, Jeffrey R. Koseff,
Environmental Fluid Mechanics , 2011

Marine aquaculture is expanding rapidly without reliable quantification of effluents. The present study focuses on understanding the transport of dissolved wastes from aquaculture pens in near-coastal environments using the hydrodynamics code SUNTANS (Stanford Unstructured Nonhydrostatic Terrain-following Adaptive Navier-Stokes Simulator), which employs unstructured grids to compute flows in the coastal ocean at very high resolution.

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Commentary

I relitti fascisti a Bolzano: Una questione di politica, arte e design

Roland Benedikter, Andreas Trenker
Il Corriere della Sera Milan, edizione Bolzano / Il Corriere dell'Alto Adige , 2011
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Journal Article

Mapping Poverty in Rural China: How Much Does the Environment Matter?

Susan Olivia, John Gibson, Jikun Huang, Xiangzheng Deng, Scott Rozelle
Environment and Developmental Economics , 2011

A recently developed small area estimation technique is used to geographically derive detailed estimates of consumption-based poverty and inequality in rural Shaanxi, China. These estimates may be helpful for targeting since there is wide variability in poverty rates within Shaanxi but low levels of inequality within most counties and townships. We also investigate whether including environmental variables in the equation used to predict consumption and poverty improves upon typical approaches that only use household survey and census data.

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Commentary

The cost of climate policy uncertainty

Frank Wolak
The Guardian , 2011

Any mention of climate policy was noticeably missing from President Obama's recent state of the union address. This is unfortunate because every day of inaction on climate policy by the United States government is another day that American consumers must pay substantially higher prices for products derived from crude oil, such as gasoline and diesel fuel. Moreover, a substantial fraction of the revenues from these higher prices goes to governments of countries that the US would prefer not to support.

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Journal Article

Which Households are Most Distant from Health Centers in Rural China? Evidence from a GIS Network Analysis

John Gibson, Xiangzheng Deng, Geua Boe-Gibson, Scott Rozelle, Jikun Huang
GeoJournal , 2011

In this paper we have two objectives - one empirical; one methodological. Although China's leaders are beginning to pay attention to health care in rural China, there are still concerns about access to health services. To examine this issue, we use measure of travel distances to health services to examine the nature of coverage in Shaanxi Province, our case study.

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Journal Article

Climate volatility and poverty vulnerability in Tanzania

S.A Ahmed, N. Diffenbaugh, Thomas Hertel, David Lobell, N. Ramankutty, A. Rios, P. Rowhani
Global Environmental Change , 2011

Climate volatility could change in the future, with important implications for agricultural productivity. For Tanzania, where food production and prices are sensitive to climate, changes in climate volatility could have severe implications for poverty. This study uses climate model projections, statistical crop models, and general equilibrium economic simulations to determine how the vulnerability of Tanzania's population to impoverishment by climate variability could change between the late 20th Century and the early 21st Century.

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Working Paper

Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A first look at linkage data of Japanese patent and enterprise census

Kazuyuki Motohashi
REITI Discussion Paper Series , 2011

This paper presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of the innovative activities of the
entire population of Japanese firms by using a linked dataset of Establishment and Enterprise

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Journal Article

Diagnostic Imaging for Low Back Pain: Advice for High-value Health Care from the American College of Physicians

Roger Chou, Amir Qaseem, Douglas K. Owens, Paul Shekelle
Annals of Internal Medicine , 2011

Diagnostic imaging is indicated for patients with low back pain only if they have severe progressive neurologic deficits or signs or symptoms that suggest a serious or specific underlying condition. In other patients, evidence indicates that routine imaging is not associated with clinically meaningful benefits but can lead to harms. Addressing inefficiencies in diagnostic testing could minimize potential harms to patients and have a large effect on use of resources by reducing both direct and downstream costs. In this area, more testing does not equate to better care.

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Journal Article

High-value, Cost-Conscious Health Care: Concepts for Clinicians to Evaluate Benefits, Harms, and Costs of Medical Interventions

Douglas K. Owens, Amir Qaseem, Roger Chou, Paul Shekelle
Annals of Internal Medicine , 2011

Health care costs in the United States are increasing unsustainably, and further efforts to control costs are inevitable and essential. Efforts to control expenditures should focus on the value, in addition to the costs, of health care interventions. Whether an intervention provides high value depends on assessing whether its health benefits justify its costs. High-cost interventions may provide good value because they are highly beneficial; conversely, low-cost interventions may have little or no value if they provide little benefit.

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Book

Global Migration Governance

Alexander Betts
Oxford University Press , 2011

"Alexander Betts is one of a handful of scholars who have mastered the complex field of Global Migration Governance. This large and impressive volume covers the topic from every conceivable angle, and it gets the difficult mix of empirical analysis and policy recommendation right. As the global conversation about migration governance continues over the coming years, this work will remain the standard reference."--Randall Hansen, Research Chair in Political Science, University of Toronto 

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Journal Article

Ten Years of Korean Studies at Stanford

Shorenstein APARC , 2011

To mark the tenth anniversary of its founding, Stanford's Korean Studies Program published Ten Years of Korean Studies at Stanford, a comprehensive overview of its globally recognized research, publishing, and programmatic activities; information about the wide range of leading scholars, government officials, and professionals involved with this ever-growing, vibrant program; and details about the significant Korea-related academic and library offerings that the program helps to support at Stanford University.

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Working Paper

Authoritarian State Building in the Middle East: From Durability to Revolution

Sean Yom
CDDRL Working Paper , 2011

What accounts for variation in the durability of authoritarian regimes in the post-colonial Middle East?  This working paper presents a new explanation that underscores how the geopolitical environment mediated outcomes of domestic conflicts pitting early rulers against social opposition.

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Book

Social Banking and Social Finance: Answers to the Economic Crisis

Roland Benedikter
Springer Briefs , 2011

For over 2,000 years, banks have served to facilitate the exchange of money and to provide a variety of economic and financial services. During the most recent financial collapse and subsequent recession, beginning in 2008, banks have been vilified as perpetrators of the crisis, the public distrust compounded by massive public bailouts. Nevertheless, another form of banking has also emerged, with a focus on promoting economic sustainability, investing in community, providing opportunity for the disadvantaged, and supporting social, environmental, and ethical agendas.

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Journal Article

Diabetes Mellitus and Tuberculosis in Countries with High Tuberculosis Burdens: Individual Risks and Social Determinants

Jeremy Goldhaber-Fiebert, Christie Y Jeon, Ted Cohen, Megan B Murray
International Journal of Epidemiology , 2011
Background A growing body of evidence supports the role of type 2 diabetes as an individual-level risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), though evidence from developing countries with the highest TB burdens is lacking. In developing countries, TB is most common among the poor, in whom diabetes may be less common. We assessed the relationship between individual-level risk, social determinants and population health in these settings.
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Journal Article

Effectiveness and Cost-effectiveness of HIV Antiretroviral Regimens Recommended in the World Health Organization’s Guidelines for Resource-limited Settings

Eran Bendavid, Philip Grant, Annie Talbot, Douglas Owens, Andrew Zolopa
AIDS (Official Journal of the International AIDS Society) , 2011

Objective: The World Health Organization (WHO) recently changed its first-line antiretroviral treatment guidelines in resource-limited settings. The cost-effectiveness of the new guidelines is unknown.

Design: Comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness analysis using a model of HIV disease progression and treatment.

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Journal Article

Rifaximin for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Without Constipation

Nayer Khazeni, Daniella Perlroth
New England Journal of Medicine , 2011

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that gut flora may play an important role in the pathophysiology of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We evaluated rifaximin, a minimally absorbed antibiotic, as treatment for IBS.

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Journal Article

Factions in a Bureaucratic Setting: The Origins of Cultural Revolution Conflict in Nanjing

Dong Guoqiang, Andrew Walder
The China Journal , 2011

Mass factions in China during the first two years of the Cultural Revolution have long been understood as interest groups: collections of individuals who shared interests due to common occupations, statuses, or party affiliations. An alternative view, developed primarily with evidence about the distinctive case of Beijing students, emphasizes not the characteristics of participants but histories of political encounters in collapsing bureaucratic hierarchies.

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Book

Office of the Director of National Intelligence: Promising Start Despite Ambiguity, Ambivalence, and Animosity

Thomas Fingar, Roger Z. George, Harvey Rishikof
Georgetown University Press in "The National Security Enterprise: Navigating the Labyrinth" , 2011

Recent breakdowns in American national security have exposed the weaknesses of the nation's vast overlapping security and foreign policy bureaucracy and the often dysfunctional interagency process. In the literature of national security studies, however, surprisingly little attention is given to the specific dynamics or underlying organizational cultures that often drive the bureaucratic politics of U.S. security policy.

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Working Paper

Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: Summary Statement from a Bellagio Meeting

, 2011

This Statement summarizes the results of the third in a series of consultations between agricultural scientists (in particular those interested in the conservation and use of crop diversity in plant improvement) and climate scientists on how to adapt agriculture to climate change. The first meeting, also held at Bellagio (3-7 September 2007), looked at the Conservation and Use of Global Crop Genetic Resources in the Face of Climate Change.

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Working Paper

Public Diplomacy 2.0: An Exploratory Case Study of the Digital Outreach Team

Lina Khatib, William Dutton, Michael Thelwall
CDDRL Working Papers , 2011

The internet is enabling new approaches to public diplomacy. The Digital Outreach Team at the US Department of State is one such initiative, aiming to engage directly with citizens in the Middle East through posting messages about US foreign policy on popular Arabic, Urdu, and Persian language internet forums. This permits them to present the US administration's views on issues related to American foreign policy in a transparent manner. This case study assesses the process and reach of this new method of internet diplomacy.

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Working Paper

The Future of South African Coal: Market, Investment, and Policy Challenges

Anton Eberhard
Program on Energy and Sustainable Development , 2011

As the world's fifth largest coal exporter and a key swing supplier between the Atlantic and Pacific coal markets, South Africa is a crucial player in global markets.  While the country has long been Europe's major supplier of coal, South African exports have begun to shift east and are steadily becoming a major source of coal supply for the Asian coal boom.  This strategic positioning sets the stage for South Africa to become an even more important player in determining how the world trades and prices coal. 

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