This map categorizes and documents areas of intervention, influence, and connection between Russia and European states, including economic manipulation, disinformation campaigns, money laundering, and political interventions. Not all of the connections are unwelcome or malign in nature: our classification also includes economic cooperation, energy supply, and political ties.
Please cite as:
Grzymala-Busse, Anna, and McFaul, Michael. Global Populisms Project, Stanford University. 2020. “Russian Footprint in Europe” database, URL.