Non-Intermittent Zero-Carbon Technologies
Because the intermittency of wind and solar will become a major challenge once they supply large shares of total electricity generation, decarbonization efforts will likely require important contributions from other zero-carbon technologies like hydro, geothermal, nuclear, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). Current technologies for nuclear and CCS, in particular, struggle from a lack of public acceptance and high cost. Technology policies that enhance the rate of learning and innovation could allow costs to come down over time—and might also help address public acceptance problems. PESD studies policy and regulatory barriers to non-intermittent zero-carbon technologies, and what approaches might be most effective for overcoming them.