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Martin Carnoy
Journal Articles

Factors Affecting the Quality of Engineering Education in the Four Largest Emerging Economies

Prashant Loyalka, Martin Carnoy, Isak Froumin, Raffiq Dossani, J.B. Tilak, Po Yang
Higher Education , 2014
A huge increase in engineering graduates from the BRIC countries in recent decades potentially threatens the competitiveness of developed countries in producing high value-added products and services, while also holding great promise for substantially increasing the level of global basic and applied innovation. The key question is whether the quality of these new BRIC engineers will be high enough to actualize this potential. The objective of our study is to assess the evolving capacity of BRIC higher education systems to produce qualified engineering graduates. To meet this objective, we compare developments in the quality of undergraduate engineering programs across elite and non-elite higher education tiers within and across each BRIC country. To assess and compare the quality of engineering education across the BRIC countries, we use multiple sources of primary and secondary data gathered from each BRIC country from 2008 to 2011. In combination with this, we utilize a production function approach that focuses on key input-, process- and outcome-based indicators associated with the quality of education programs. Our analysis suggests that in all four countries, a minority of engineering students receives high quality training in elite institutions while the majority of students receive low quality training in non-elite institutions. Our analysis also shows how the BRIC countries vary in their capacity to improve the quality of engineering education.
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Journal Articles

The Concept of Public Goods, the State, and Higher Education Finance: A View from the BRICs

Martin Carnoy , Isak Froumin , Prashant Loyalka , Jandhyala B. G. Tilak
Higher Education , 2014
Because higher education serves both public and private interests, the way it is conceived and financed is contested politically, appearing in different forms in different societies. What is public and private in education is a political–social construct, subject to various political forces, primarily interpreted through the prism of the state. Mediated through the state, this construct can change over time as the economic and social context of higher education changes. In this paper, we analyze through the state’s financing of higher education how it changes as a public/private good and the forces that impinge on states to influence such changes. To illustrate our arguments, we discuss trends in higher education financing in the BRIC countries—Brazil, Russia, India, and China. We show that in addition to increased privatization of higher education financing, BRIC states are increasingly differentiating the financing of elite and non-elite institutions.
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Journal Articles

University Expansion in the BRIC Countries and the Global Information Economy

Martin Carnoy, Prashant Loyalka, Isak Froumin
Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning , 2013
Can the BRIC university systems greatly increase the quantity of graduates in these developing countries and simultaneously achieve high enough quality to compete successfully at the higher end of the global knowledge economy?
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Books

University Expansion in a Changing Global Economy: Triumph of the BRICs?

Martin Carnoy, Prashant Loyalka, Maria Dobryakova, Rafiq Dossani, Isak Froumin, Katherine M. Kuhns, Jandhyala B.G. Tilak, Rong Wang
Stanford University Press , 2013
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Working Papers

The Changing Governance of Higher Education in India

Martin Carnoy, Rafiq Dossani
Stanford University , 2011

In this paper, Martin Carnoy and Rafiq Dossani ask how the governance and objectives of Indian higher education have evolved, and whether changes in governance are consistent with changes in the system’s social objectives, and, in their turn, how the governance system, which is a “layered” product of past structures heavily influenced by a series of historical reforms, may impact how current social objectives are realized. These social objectives have included, at various times, at the least, equity, quality, cost effectiveness, and access.

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Working Papers

Understanding the Expansion and Quality of Engineering Education in India (draft)

Martin Carnoy, Rafiq Dossani, Jandhyala Tilak
Stanford University , 2010

This is a study of higher education and quality in one of the world's largest

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