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Jean C. Oi
Commentary

After COVID-19: Rebooting Business in China

Jennifer Choo, Jean C. Oi, Christopher Thomas, Xue (Xander) Wu
2020

To explore how business leaders and entrepreneurs in China responded to the COVID-19 lockdown and how they’re planning for the future, the China Program conducted a survey in coordination with the Stanford Center at Peking University and Stanford Business School alumni Christopher Thomas and Xue (Xander) Wu.

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Commentary

疫情之后: 企业的重振与美中​经济​关系前景

Jennifer Choo, Jean C. Oi, Christopher Thomas, Xue (Xander) Wu
2020

To explore how business leaders and entrepreneurs in China responded to the COVID-19 lockdown and how they’re planning for the future, the China Program conducted a survey in coordination with the Stanford Center at Peking University and Stanford Business School alumni Christopher Thomas and Xue (Xander) Wu.

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Journal Articles

China’s Challenges: Now It Gets Much Harder

Thomas Fingar, Jean C. Oi
The Washington Quarterly , 2020

The easy phases of China’s quest for wealth and power are over. After forty years, every one of a set of favorable conditions has diminished or vanished, and China’s future, neither inevitable nor immutable, will be shaped by the policy choices of party leaders facing at least eleven difficult challenges, including the novel coronavirus. 

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Books

Zouping Revisited: Adaptive Governance in a Chinese County

Jean C. Oi, Jean C. Oi, Steven Goldstein
Stanford University Press , 2018

China has undergone dramatic change in its economic institutions in recent years, but surprisingly little change politically. Somehow, the political institutions seem capable of governing a vastly more complex market economy and a rapidly changing labor force. One possible explanation, examined in Zouping Revisited, is that within the old organizational molds there have been subtle but profound changes to the ways these governing bodies actually work.

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Books

Challenges in the Process of China’s Urbanization

Karen Eggleston, Jean C. Oi, Wang Yiming
Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center, distributed by Brookings Institution Press , 2017

The same institutions that enabled China’s massive urbanization and spurred its economic growth now require further reform and innovation.

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Books

Syncretism: The Politics of Economic Restructuring and System Reform in Japan

Kenji E. Kushida, Kay Shimizu, Jean C. Oi
Walter H. Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center , 2013

Japan’s first decade of the twenty-first century was both disappointing and bewildering, producing wildly contrasting evaluations. Many have come to call this period the “second lost decade,” characterized by policy paralysis and overall lackluster economic growth.

For those studying Japan more closely, however, the same decades reveal nothing short of a broad transformation in numerous core tenets of Japan’s postwar political economy. How can we best capture this transformation?

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Journal Articles

Will Demographic Change Slow China's Rise?

Karen Eggleston, Jean C. Oi, Ang Sun, Andrew Walder, Xueguang Zhou, Scott Rozelle
Journal of Asian Studies , 2013

China’s 2010 census revealed a population of 1.34 billion, 50 percent urban, 13.3 percent above age sixty, and with 118.06 boys born for every 100 girls. In this article, we discuss how gender imbalance, population aging, and their interaction with rapid urbanization have shaped China’s reform era development and will strongly shape China’s future. These intertwined demographic changes pose an unprecedented challenge to social and economic governance, contributing to and magnifying the effects of a slower rate of economic growth.

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Journal Articles

Will Demographic Change Slow China's Rise?

Karen Eggleston, Jean C. Oi, Scott Rozelle, Andrew G. Walder, Xueguang Zhou, Ang Sun
The Journal of Asian Studies , 2013

China's population of 1.34 billion is now 50 percent urban, over 13 percent above age 60, and with 118 boys born for every 100 girls. For such a large population at a relatively low level of per capita income, how will aging interact with substantial gender imbalance and rapid urbanization?

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Journal Articles

Shifting Fiscal Control to Limit Cadre Power in China's Townships and Villages

Jean C. Oi, Kim Singer Babiarz, Linxiu Zhang, Renfu Luo, Scott Rozelle
The China Quarterly , 2012

In contrast to its decentralized political economy model of the 1980s, China took a surprising turn towards recentralization in the mid-1990s. Its fiscal centralization, starting with the 1994 tax reforms, is well known, but political recentralization also has been under way to control cadres directly at township and village levels. Little-noticed measures designed to tighten administrative and fiscal regulation began to be implemented during approximately the same period in the mid-1990s. Over time these measures have succeeded in hollowing out the power of village and township cadres.

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Books

Adapt, Fragment, Transform: Corporate Restructuring and System Reform in South Korea

Byung-Kook Kim, Eun Mee Kim, Jean Oi
Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center , 2012

South Korea remains a puzzle for political economists. The country has experienced phenomenal economic growth since the 1960s, but its upward trajectory has been repeatedly diverted by serious systemic crises, followed by spectacular recoveries. The recoveries are often the result of vigorous structural reforms that nonetheless retain many of South Korea's traditional economic institutions. How, then, can South Korea suffer from persistent systemic instability and yet prove so resilient? What remains the same and what changes?

The contributors to this volume consider the South Korean economy in its larger political context. Moving beyond the easy dichotomies—equilibrium vs. disequilibrium and stability vs. instability—they describe a complex and surprisingly robust economic and political system. Further, they argue that neither systemic challenges nor political pressures alone determine South Korea's stability and capacity for change. Instead, it is distinct patterns of interaction that shape this system's characteristics, development, and evolution.

Examination copies: Shorenstein APARC books are distributed by the Brookings Institution Press. You can obtain information on obtaining an examination copy at their website.

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Journal Articles

Children of China's Future

Karen Eggleston, Jean C. Oi, Scott Rozelle, Ang Sun, Xueguang Zhou
YaleGlobal Online , 2012

As China's economy grows so does the prevalence of social inequality. In a YaleGlobal Online article, a team of Shorenstein APARC China experts says the country must invest more now in education and public health programs for its rural children or it will face major growth challenges in the near future.

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Books

Going Private in China: The Politics of Corporate Restructuring and System Reform

Jean C. Oi
Shorenstein APARC, distributed by the Brookings Institution Press , 2011

As the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) set about reforming its centrally planned economy, it faced the thorny policy question of how to reform its state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Should it support a shift from public to private ownership of the means of production? Such a shift would challenge not only the CCP's socialist ideology but also its very legitimacy. Mixing the business of corporate restructuring with the politics of socialism presented nothing short of a policy nightmare.

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Books

Growing Pains: Tensions and Opportunity in China's Transformation

Jean C. Oi, Scott Rozelle, Xueguang Zhou
Shorenstein APARC , 2010

China is transforming itself, and the world is adapting in response. Profound forces have reshaped the country's socioeconomic and political landscapes, but they have also brought challenges—growing pains—that China must face if it is to continue its upward trajectory.

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Books

Fiscal Crisis in China's Townships: Causes and Consequences

Jean C. Oi, Elizabeth J. Perry, Merle Goldman
Harvard University Press in "Grassroots Political Reform in Contemporary China" , 2007

Observers often note the glaring contrast between China's stunning economic progress and stalled political reforms. Although sustained growth in GNP has not brought democratization at the national level, this does not mean that the Chinese political system has remained unchanged. At the grassroots level, a number of important reforms have been implemented in the last two decades.

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Books

At the Crossroads of Empires: Middlemen, Social Networks, and State-building in Republican Shanghai

Jean C. Oi, Nara Dillon
Stanford University Press , 2007

To a degree uncommon in among Chinese cities, Republican Shanghai had no center. Its territory was divided among three (sometimes more) municipal governments integrated into various national states and empires. No government building or religious institution gave Shanghai a "center." Yet amidst deep cleavages, the city functioned as a coherent whole. What held Shanghai together? The authors' answer is that a group of middlemen with myriad connections across political and social boundaries created networks that held Republican Shanghai together.

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Books

Chinese Firms Under Transformation: Corporate Restructuring, Employee Layoff and Manager Turnover in 1990s

Jean C. Oi, Harland Prechel
Elsevier JAI Press in "Politics and Neoliberalism: Structure, Process and Outcome" , 2007

The articles in this volume directly or indirectly examine central tenets of neoliberalism: interference with market mechanisms is the cause of poor economic performance, and returning to market fundamentalism will restore prosperity. Despite these bold claims, scholars have not examined the extent to which neoliberal policies result in positive outcomes or whether economic successes are explained by neoliberalism. This volume of Research in Political Sociology assesses these neoliberal claims.

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Books

Corporate Restructuring and Social Security in State Owned Enterprises: Lessons from China

Jean C. Oi, David A Kelly, Ramkishen Rajan
World Scientific Publishing Co in "India-China: Managing Globalization" , 2006

The dynamics of a global economy is being reshaped by the economic emergence of two Asian giants, China and India. How the world's two most populous countries manage globalization as they pursue economic reform and liberalization will impact significantly their societies, the rest of Asia, and the world.

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Journal Articles

Patterns of Corporate Restructuring in China: Political Constraints on Privatization

Jean C. Oi
China Journal , 2005

This article examines the logic of China's corporate restructuring. It argues that there is a political logic that mediates the pattern of corporate restructuring that has occurred in China since the 1990s. Even though China's officials need not worry about being voted out of office, they must worry about the political fallout from restructuring. Privatization cannot be allowed to proceed unless provisions are made to placate workers who will be affected by the enterprise restructuring.

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Books

Old Problems for New Leaders: Institutional Disjunctions in Rural China

Jean C. Oi, Yun-han Chu, Chih-cheng Lo, Ramon H. Myers
Cambridge University Press in "The New Chinese Leadership: Challenges and Opportunities after the 16th Party Congress" , 2004

These essays reveal how China's Communist Party selected a new generation of leaders in late 2002 to maintain the position of a regional and world power. They explain how China's leaders are promoting a market economy and undertaking gradual political reforms and note the problems they are having in handling mounting political corruption, spreading unemployment, growing disparity of wealth and income, and a crisis of belief.

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Books

Bending without Breaking, The Adaptability of Chinese Political Institutions

Jean C. Oi, Nicholas C. Hope, Dennis Tao Yang, Mu Yang Li
Stanford University Press in "How Far Across the River? Chinese Policy Reform at the Millennium" , 2003

Gradual change has been a hallmark of the Chinese reform experience, and China's success in its sequential approach makes it unique among the former command economies. Since 1979, with the inception of the continuing era of reform, the Chinese economy has flourished. Growth has averaged nine percent a year, and China is now a trillion dollar economy. China has become a major trading power and the predominant target among developing countries for foreign direct investment. Despite all this, China remains poor and the reform process unfinished.

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Books

Realms of Freedom in Post-Mao China

William C. Kirby, Jean C. Oi, William C. Kirby
Stanford University Press in "Realms of Freedom in Modern China" , 2003

The fifteenth and final volume of the series The Making of Modern Freedom, this book explores a variety of issues surrounding questions of human rights and freedom in China. The chapters suggest very significant realms of freedom, with or without the protection of law, in the personal, social, and economic lives of people in China before the twentieth century. This was recognized, and partly codified, in the early twentieth century, when legal experts sought to establish a republic of laws and limits.

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Journal Articles

Elections and Power: The Locus of Decision Making in Chinese Villages

Jean C. Oi
China Quarterly , 2000

This article explores an important but neglected topic in the literature on democratization in East Asia: the international dimension of democratization. It presents a coherent and comprehensive analysis of the impact of external political, economic and cultural factors on China, South Korea and Taiwan's political development since World War II.

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Books

Property Rights and Economic Reform in China

Jean C. Oi, Andrew G. Walder
Stanford University Press , 1999

China's rapid economic growth during the past two decades has occurred without the systematic privatization programs once urged upon the former Communist regimes of Europe and the USSR. Some observers have argued that this shows that changes in property rights are not important in reforming a command economy; others insist that in China a façade of public ownership hides a variety of ownership forms that are essentially private in nature.

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Books

Rural China Takes Off: Institutional Foundations of Economic Reform

Jean C. Oi
University of California Press , 1999

In this incisive analysis of one of the most spectacular economic breakthroughs in the Deng era, Jean C. Oi shows how and why Chinese rural-based industry has become the fastest growing economic sector not just in China but in the world. Oi argues that decollectivization and fiscal decentralization provided party officials of the localities--counties, townships, and villages--with the incentives to act as entrepreneurs and to promote rural industrialization in many areas of the Chinese countryside.

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