Cyber-Enabled Information and Influence Warfare and Manipulation: Understanding Problems, Developing Solutions

Amy Zegart, Herb Lin, Tom Fingar, Nate Persily, Lee Ross 2017 - 2018

Cyber-Enabled Information and Influence Warfare and Manipulation: Understanding Problems, Developing Solutions

Hostile cyber operations are characterized as acts of war in academic and policy debates, which in turn has led researchers to apply theories of war to understand actor behavior in this domain. Yet recent events show that many hostile cyber operations fall short of the threshold of war; they are more appropriately in the realm of intelligence operations and covert action. This project examines the psychological, organizational, legal, and international security dimensions of cyber-enabled influence/information warfare and manipulation (IIWAM) operations through this new framing of the problem. The project explores how individuals receive information in a saturated and increasingly manipulated information environment; what geopolitical forces drive state and non-state actors to wage cyber-enabled IIWAM operations; how U.S. national security agencies are structured to deal with information operations; why U.S. democracy is particularly vulnerable; and potential counters to cyber-enabled IIWAM.

Researchers

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Amy Zegart

Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and Davies Family Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution and Co-director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation
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Amy Zegart

Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and Davies Family Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution and Co-director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation
Professor, by courtesy, of Political Science
Amy Zegart is co-director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation and Professor of Political Science, by courtesy. She is also the Davies Family Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution and directs the Cyber Policy Program. She is a contributing editor to The Atlantic. Before coming to Stanford in 2011, Zegart served as professor of public policy at UCLA’s Luskin School of Public Affairs. Her research examines U.S. intelligence challenges, cyber security, grand strategy, and American foreign policy. She has authored several books, including Flawed by Design: The Evolution of the CIA, JCS, and NSC, which won the highest national dissertation award in political science, and Spying Blind: The CIA, the FBI, and the Origins of 9/11, which won the National Academy of Public Administration’s Brownlow Book Award. Her most recent book is Eyes on Spies: Congress and the United States Intelligence Community.
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Herbert (Herb) Lin

Senior Research Scholar for Cyber Policy and Security and Hank J. Holland Fellow in Cyber Policy and Security, Hoover Institution
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Herbert (Herb) Lin

Senior Research Scholar for Cyber Policy and Security and Hank J. Holland Fellow in Cyber Policy and Security, Hoover Institution
Dr. Herb Lin is senior research scholar for cyber policy and security at the Center for International Security and Cooperation and Hank J. Holland Fellow in Cyber Policy and Security at the Hoover Institution, both at Stanford University. His research interests relate broadly to policy-related dimensions of cybersecurity and cyberspace, and he is particularly interested in and knowledgeable about the use of offensive operations in cyberspace, especially as instruments of national policy. In addition to his positions at Stanford University, he is Chief Scientist, Emeritus for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies, where he served from 1990 through 2014 as study director of major projects on public policy and information technology, and Adjunct Senior Research Scholar and Senior Fellow in Cybersecurity (not in residence) at the Saltzman Institute for War and Peace Studies in the School for International and Public Affairs at Columbia University; and a member of the Science and Security Board of the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. He recently served on President Obama’s Commission on Enhancing National Cybersecurity. Prior to his NRC service, he was a professional staff member and staff scientist for the House Armed Services Committee (1986-1990), where his portfolio included defense policy and arms control issues. He received his doctorate in physics from MIT.
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Thomas Fingar

Shorenstein APARC Fellow
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Thomas Fingar

Shorenstein APARC Fellow
Thomas Fingar is a Shorenstein APARC Fellow in the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University. He was the inaugural Oksenberg-Rohlen Distinguished Fellow from 2010 through 2015 and the Payne Distinguished Lecturer at Stanford in 2009. From 2005 through 2008, he served as the first deputy director of national intelligence for analysis and, concurrently, as chairman of the National Intelligence Council. Fingar served previously as assistant secretary of the State Department’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research (2000-01 and 2004-05), principal deputy assistant secretary (2001-03), deputy assistant secretary for analysis (1994-2000), director of the Office of Analysis for East Asia and the Pacific (1989-94), and chief of the China Division (1986-89). Between 1975 and 1986 he held a number of positions at Stanford University, including senior research associate in the Center for International Security and Arms Control.
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Nathaniel (Nate) Persily

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Nathaniel (Nate) Persily

James B. McClatchy Professor of Law
An award-winning teacher and nationally recognized constitutional law expert, Professor Persily, JD ’98, focuses on the law of democracy, addressing issues such as voting rights, political parties, campaign finance and redistricting. A sought-after nonpartisan voice in voting rights, he has served as a court-appointed expert to draw legislative districting plans for Georgia, Maryland and New York and as special master for the redistricting of Connecticut’s congressional districts. Most recently, he also served as the Senior Research Director for the Presidential Commission on Election Administration, a bipartisan commission created by the President to deal with the long lines at the polling place and other administrative problems witnessed in the 2012 election. The Report of the Commission is available at www.supportthevoter.gov.
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Lee Ross

Professor, Pychology
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Lee Ross

Professor, Pychology
Co-Founder, Stanford Center on International conflict and negotiation
Lee Ross is a professor of psychology at Stanford University and co-founder of the Stanford Center on Conflict and Negotiation The author of three influential books, Human Inference and the Person and the Situation (both with Richard Nisbett) and, more recently The Wisest One in the Room (with Thomas Gilovich) and many highly cited papers, his research on attributional biases and shortcomings in human inference has exerted a major impact in social psychology and the field of human inference, judgment and decision-making. Among the phenomena he identified and has explored are the fundamental attribution error, the false consensus effect, reactive devaluation, the hostile media phenomenon, and the convictions of naïve realism. More recently he has ventured into more applied domains, exploring psychological barriers to dispute resolution (most notably the phenomenon of reactive devaluation) and participating in conflict resolution efforts in the Middle East and Northern Ireland. He has also taken part in efforts to deal with other applied topics including telemarketer fraud directed against the elderly, the behavior aspects of health care utilization and the problem of combating global warming. Ross was elected in 1994 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and in 2010 to the National Academy of Sciences. He has also received distinguished career awards from the American Psychological Society and the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. Education: University of Toronto BA, 1965. Columbia University PhD, 1979 (where he earned his PhD with Stanley Schachter. Upon graduation in 1969, he joined Stanford faculty)